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SINGINAWA : BEYOND THE SACRED FOREST

Singinawa Jungle Lodge, as you know, is located in the buffer zone of the Kanha Tiger Reserve. Even though tiger conservation is very close to our hearts, there are many more avenues to explore at the Lodge. Let me talk to you about a few of them.

Our aim at Singinawa is to offer a holistic approach towards ecotourism. There is a constant attempt to introduce newer ways of being as inclusive towards different aspects of nature and wildlife as possible. The eco-restoration walk has become hugely popular among Singinawa guests. This 2 km trail within the Lodge grounds lets them learn about the reforestation techniques that we employ here as they talk to our expert in-house naturalists who accompany them. Spotted deer and many species of birds can be spotted often during the walk and, if you’re lucky, there might be sightings of muntjacs, leopards, wild boars and rodents too. There are also nocturnal walks on offer. These are great for viewing the range of animals like civets and hyenas that are active during the night. The Lodge grounds are frequented by various wild animals and guests find it quite exciting to see them right at their doorstep. Tree plantation is one of our most extensive activities and till date we have planted over 10,000 saplings. This herculean task has been possible due to the dedicated team of naturalists and conservationists that Singinawa has.

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Birding is an activity that I personally enjoy and so do the guests at Singinawa. There are more than 150 species to be seen here. You can observe their agile bodies covered in colorful feathers or marvel at their amazingly precise nest-building skills. The trees within the grounds provide an ideal home to a lot of them. Just ask any of our naturalists or staff members about the special birding tours available. Apart from that, we also conduct herping tours. Herping includes searching for amphibians and reptiles, many varieties of which can be found at Singinawa. A lot of them have been identified and recorded but spotting newer species is also heard of quite often. Maybe you’ll be one of the lucky discoverers! If you have an interest in entomology, then you’ll particularly enjoy the unique butterfly and moth habitats within our grounds. The diverse and idyllic landscape of Singinawa offers excitement at every corner.

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The Kanha Museum of Life and Art was established at Singinawa to promote indigenous art forms that the local tribes practice. The Gonds, Bhils and Baigas create stunning artworks that reflect their natural habitat and age-old traditions. Birds and animals from the region are found in abundance within these works, drawn in a stunning range of colours. The Museum has both the words ‘life’ and ‘art’ in the title because it depicts the life of the local communities through the art they produce. It has played a vital role in the conservation measures taken to ensure the intangible heritage of the tribes and its tangible forms remain intact for many generations to come. There are many informative books and audio guides available for all visitors. The Museum also has solar panels attached to its roof and runs completely on clean energy. All activities at Singinawa are conducted with the fact that it’s an eco-lodge in mind.

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Here’s hoping that more of you will join us in our endeavors, as guests and as contributors. Only through a collective effort are our goals achievable. Take the journey with Singinawa and walk on the wild side!

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My Love for trees and plants!!

Ficus racemosa (Doomar_Goolar).JPG“Trees are poems that the earth writes upon the sky.”
– Kahlil Gibran
I don’t exactly recall when I discovered my love for trees. Maybe I was always meant to
love them. I still remember being fascinated by their beauty as a child and that
fascination exists till date.
When I purchased the Singinawa Jungle Lodge two years back, one of my first missions
was to re-green the property. The rich natural habitat of the area had been affected by
the presence of the Lodge till then and I felt that it was my responsibility to restore it
back to its original state to the maximum extent. Singinawa was to be an eco-lodge and
an epitome of sustainable tourism. Since then, tens of thousands of trees have been
planted at the Lodge. The effort has been a lot of constant hard work but also one of the
most rewarding projects ever. With every visit, I see more and more progress being
made.
I love discovering new trees during my walks in Singinawa. The canopies of giants, little
pools of light where the rays of the sun managed to find gaps within their leafy branches,
shade paths across the place. There is so much to look at. The Ghost tree stretches its
pale body into the sky while the Mahua releases the intoxicating aroma of its flowers,
from which the locals produce a delectable wine. The Palash is rightly called the Flame
of the Forest, bright red flowers adorning its branches like a thousand rubies. Sal trees
stand upright in their groves like custodians of the forest, ornamented by their blossoms.
Pradip Krishen, in the foreword of Peter Wohlleben’s book, writes that Sal trees die when
planted alone due to loneliness without the company of others of its kind. The book,
called ‘The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate – Discoveries
from a Secret World’, is an absolutely wonderful read. It presents trees as interactive
entities that can feel things the same way as any mobile organism. I could relate to it
because I have always considered them to have distinct personalities. Some are more
sombre, like majestic war veterans with many stories of their life experiences, while
others are more flamboyant, branches dancing at the slightest breeze. Singinawa’s trees
are thoroughly enjoyed by its wild inhabitants who used them for shelter and food.
Congregations of langurs feast on juicy mangoes while Grey Hornbills and other birds
make a meal of Doomar or fig tree fruits. Some trees consider imitation the sincerest
form of flattery, like the Kachnar whose leaves look like camel’s hooves.

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Singinawa also plays host to some stunning varieties of orchids. The Checkered Vanda is one of them. It favors Mango and Terminalia trees, and blooms between March and August. It is believed to be a cure-all and the juice from the compressed plants is often sold as medicine. This has seriously depleted its numbers and we, through our efforts, have successfully managed to give it a good home and protection at Singinawa. Due to the resemblance of the Vanda’s flowers to a devil’s face, it is sometimes referred to as Rakshas or Demon in Goa. Quite unfair, I think. Flowering plants are found in abundance at the Lodge and spring fills the place with vibrancy and redolence. There are bursts of color everywhere. The cool breeze carries with it such exotic fragrances that I can’t help but carry a smile on my face as I walk through.
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We haven’t forgotten to take care of some of our most delicate residents, the butterflies. The larvae of many species can be seen in the host plants at the butterfly habitat. I find it so exciting to find previously unnoticed ones. It just proves that, like the guests at the Lodge, they too enjoy their stay at Singinawa. Whoever is spreading our fame via word of mouth among them, thank you. Maybe it’s one of the Oak Blues or perhaps the Baronets, sipping nectar from the nearby flowers quite nonchalantly.

It has been such a pleasure to pursue my passion for conservation and re-greening at Singinawa. I hope to launch many ventures along these lines in the future. Looking forward to a greener tomorrow!

-Tulika Kedia

MD, Singinawa Jungle Lodge

Phen Sanctuary

Located in the vicinity of the Kanha Tiger Reserve, Phen Sanctuary has led to some wonderful experiences for me. It’s an ideal place to view a host of wild animals and birds. For a wildlife lover like me, Phen provides the fodder for many memorable stories. Let me share what happened during two recent visits.

It takes about two hours to reach Phen from Kanha and I usually leave before daybreak. Its idyllic natural beauty is always laden with promises of adventure. Seeing the giant squirrel as it expertly jumped from one tree to another was definitely a highlight. It took us hours of scanning the trees for the squirrel. We saw many squirrel nests made of fresh leaves and after a while the animal was finally spotted. I marveled at its agility and the fact that it was such a lucky sighting.

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The plateau called Jurji Dadar in the sanctuary reminded me of the Bamni Dadar in Kanha where my husband and I had spent countless days admiring the stunning panoramic view. A hike on foot through a forest trail led to an amazing discovery. We went down some steps and suddenly in front of us there was a small crystal clear water-body and a waterfall that was brimming with fish. It was so pleasant just soaking in the serene atmosphere, embellished by the sound of flowing water and the songs of birds.

Alarm calls of langurs suggested the recent presence of one of the animals they considered a threat and soon enough we noticed fresh pugmarks of a leopard. It was quite exciting! There was a troupe of rhesus macaque in the hills at one time which made me wonder who was more amazed at the presence of the other, us or them. Both parties spent a few minutes watching each other before deciding to move on. One of our visits also led to the sighting of two wild dogs mating. They are commonly known as dhole and found across this region.

Birding is one of my favorite activities and Phen Sanctuary is perfect for it. It boasts of more than 150 species of birds and we were very happy to see quite a few of them, 65 to be exact. There were quite a few varieties of jungle fowl, along with water birds like the Lesser Whistling Duck, Little Grebe and Little Cormorant. The Red-wattled Lapwing was quite interesting to observe due to its characteristic call. It sounds like “did-he-do-it” which has actually led to the Lapwing being nicknamed the ‘did-he-do-it bird’. We saw predatory birds such as the White-eyed Buzzard and Bonelli’s Eagle as well as the Black-winged Kite, with its intense red eyes. Small, brightly colored birds were abundant in the Sanctuary and they added to the already vibrant sights and sounds of the jungle. In a matter of just a few hours we were able to see many Swifts, Minivets and Flycatchers. The Purple Sunbird’s glistening feathers made him stand out from the green surroundings like a dark gem. The Lesser Goldenback woodpecker with its bright red crest proved that punk is not dead in the wild. I love encountering newer species on my birding trips and Phen has definitely expanded my repertoire of knowledge significantly.

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A very remarkable incident occurred during one of my visits. We saw the pugmarks of a sloth bear, a tiger and a leopard in a single PIP (pug impression pad). PIPs are prepared using a thick layer of fine soil on often-used animal paths in the jungle to trace their tracks easily. Finding tracks of three big animals on one is quite rare and I consider myself extremely fortunate to have witnessed it. Another fortunate sighting that could have resulted in unfortunate consequences was when my naturalist and I spotted a burning tree on our way to Phen. We immediately notified the nearest forest officer and a disastrous jungle fire was avoided due to our vigilance. When on a jungle safari, you must keep a lookout for not only wildlife sightings but also anything out of the ordinary.

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Every time I leave Phen Sanctuary, it saddens me that the trip has come to an end. Yet there is a little tinge of excitement at what awaits when I return. There are always newer things to learn, newer adventures to be had. As life continues, so does my passion for nature and wildlife. Try not to limit yourself to the concrete jungle. The real one is out there and it is spectacular.

 

Tulika Kedia

MD, Singinawa Jungle Lodge

My latest sojourn to Singinawa

There are few places in the world that offer a fresh perspective on every visit. Singinawa is, I am proud to say, one of them. Each visit of mine has inspired new stories, letting my love for nature grow fondly. Recently, I decided to go there with my family and I’d love to share the experience with you.

Having owned the Lodge for two years now, stepping into its grounds gives me a sense of familiarity and yet I am exhilarated about what I might encounter. There is always a feeling of adventure that one has when going to a place that is inhabited by wildlife but I am glad to combine adventure with comfort at Singinawa, letting my guests enjoy the best of both worlds. Conservation is very close to my heart and through the Singinawa Conservation Foundation, along with the efforts of my dedicated team, the Lodge has been re-greened quite extensively within a short period of time. This, of course, is an ongoing process and one that I hope to continue expanding with time. The team of naturalists at Singinawa contributes immensely towards educating guests about the huge variety of plants and wildlife that can be found here. With every visit, I notice a positive growth in the right direction.

This time at the Lodge there were plenty of pleasant encounters, expected and otherwise. The antics of the mischievous langurs in the trees have always amused me. At times I try to decipher what they might be chattering about. A trip to the river Tannaur led to a happy sighting. I saw tracks of a hyena on the riverbank, a healthy sign of the animal population in the Reserve. It might have followed a deer or simply come to enjoy a refreshing drink of water. We’ll let that remain a mystery. Deer are quite a common sighting at the Lodge. The lush grasslands that surround it are quite beckoning for the different species that inhabit this region. Spotted deer and families of wild boar graciously visit Singinawa’s guests. Sighting animals is not limited to daytime. The night brings with it its own troupe of wild visitors. I had just stepped out of my room at night when I saw a couple of palm civets nearby. It was interesting to note their explorations of the area in search for some juicy berries or perhaps a crunchy insect. They were very pleasant company for a while before scurrying off.

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The beauty of a luna moth enthralled me during one of my walks. Its gracefully long hind wings made me think of a ballerina in the middle of a quatrième devant, robed in a delicate shade of green. I was honored to have witnessed it during its short life span of a week.

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For me Singinawa is a vision. I endeavor to provide the best habitation to not only guests at the Lodge but also to the natural residents here. One cannot isolate oneself from nature when promoting ecotourism. It is imperative to create a holistic experience where nature plays a pivotal role. This trip has reinvigorated me to continue on my journey of conservation. Looking forward to see what the next one brings.

-Tulika Kedia

MD, Singinawa Jungle Lodge

Breakfast after the Tiger

The renowned National Parks of India which are scattered through the vast country attract a host of wildlife enthusiasts from around the world. Being the wild habitat of the Big Cats, people travel from around the globe to witness these spectacular animals.

Sally and Richard were drawn by the same allure during their visit to the Singhinawa Lodge. We left in the early hours for our morning game drive in the Mukki Zone of the Kanha National Park. While exploring the zone for the majestic tiger, we came upon a host of birds that caught our attention. Nonetheless, the tiger didnt make it appearance and around 8:30 am we decided to go for breakfast and restart our quest after our morning meal.

As luck would have it, as we were settling for breakfast, a park guide alerted us to the sighting of a tigress in a nearby area. The possibility of a sighting got the group excited and we promptly decided to halt the meal preparation, fold our tables and get back on the trail.

When we reached the designated spot of the sighting, another vehicle welcomed us- they were waiting for the same experience. We decided to move our vehicle further ahead and lo behold, around 100 meters ahead the tigress was walking in front of us.

The sheer excitement of seeing this majestic animal got the whole group excited, the wonder of the experience was palpable. As we continued to watch, the tigress stopped and slowly went inside the bamboo thickets. Within a fraction of a second she stepped further inside the bushes and we heard the sound of a kill.

On moving the vehicle further we saw the tigress holding a spotted deer faun in her mouth. The excitement of seeing this episode in the wild right in front of their eyes stunned the group and everything watched with rapt attention. Finally the tigress turned towards us and was now facing the group, giving her audience the opportunity to take pictures and videos of this raw moment in the wilderness.

This memorable sighting is etched in the minds of my companions and I, as none of us had witnessed a tiger kill in real time before. Hilariously the unanimous verdict of the group was “it was worth skipping the breakfast”. We finally went back to have breakfast where we shared our thoughts on this ‘once is a lifetime’ kind of experience. We thanked the park guide for alerting us about the sighting and for having this memorable experience at Kanha that would stay with us all for the years to come.

Sachin Sharma, Naturalist

Singinawa Jungle Lodge.

Nights at Singinawa Jungle Lodge- the story of the Gliding Squirrels

The 110 acre expanse of wilderness that is Singinawa Jungle Lodge encompasses Sal forests, riverine forests, grasslands and thick bamboo forests. This varied habitat provides a healthy habitat for the animals of the buffer zone of Kanha Tiger Reserve. We can proudly see that we have extended the buffer zone by another 110 acres with our planting and habitat modelling over the years. The wildlife to their time to trust us but recently the results have been great. The three resident spotted deer herds, multiple troops of Langurs and the large sounders of Wild Boar were the first to trust us. They roam freely through the property, sometimes walking between the cottages at dawn, dusk and at night. The secretive representatives like the Barking Deer or the Indian Muntjac, Gaur, Rhesus Macaques and Sambhar are seldom seen as they restrict themselves to the Bamboo patches around our water holes, coming out at twilight hours to satisfy their thirst. They are more often heard (when the cats come visiting) than seen. This healthy herbivore population was bound to attract carnivores like Leopards, Wild Dogs and sometimes even the beautiful tigress that patrols this and the surrounding forest patch. It was exciting to get these beauties on camera in our grounds. It was definitely a moment of delight for the entire team as all our efforts were paying off.

As exciting as these encounters and sightings maybe, the true benefit of this healthy environment within our boundaries lies in the fact that this is the best opportunity to study the nocturnal life of the region. These animals are seldom seen as the park is open only from dawn to dusk. What happens after that was always a mystery. Apart from the random glimpse on the main road on the way to the lodge or park, there was no concrete basis to study these special members of this ecosystem. The regular setting up of camera traps and random night walks at various times of the night were scheduled to try and see what we get here. It got more exciting than we anticipated.

The Black-naped Hares were the first find as they seemed to be all over the property. It was the easiest catch, something even guests encountered on the way to their rooms after dinner. As exciting as the Hare were, we needed a bigger challenge.

We started off with a great find, the mass roosting of Fruit Bats or Flying Foxes on the banks of the Tannaur River. They use the planted Pine trees ( planted by a local nursery) and their thick foliage as cover from the sun during the day. They would fly to the river at dusk for a drink before heading out for their night feast. This kept us excited for a good few days but we needed to find more. The area around the Leopard Rock dinner spot seemed to be the hub for a pair of Indian Crested Porcupines (We also learnt that the collective noun for porcupines is ‘a prickle of porcupines’!!!Nice right!!!). They were caught on our camera traps and tracks were found at our waterhole but they haven’t been seen yet despite all our efforts. We probably need a better strategy to outsmart these sharp quilled and sharp witted members of the forest.

These two were really exciting catches. We also had multiple visits from a Jungle Cat, who probably came in looking for our Hares, adding to the night’s exciting list. The tracks of the rare Bengal Fox were seen on the sandy banks of the Tannaur River. This one probably uses that trail to get from their well-hidden subterranean den to the fields, looking for crabs, scorpions and small rodents en-route. These exciting catches were  a real treat for our efforts but one question always kept bothering us – ‘Where were the Civets’ ?

We decided to regularly walk the grounds at night looking for these long-tailed short-legged cat-like prowlers, especially around fruiting figs and the flowering Mahua trees. We were focussed on seeing the Palm Civet, a fruitarian and occasional carnivore as they are easier to find than the rarer Small Indian Civet. The Palm Civet spends the day in tree hollows, coming to the forest floor at night to feed. They are also known to be very active amongst the canopy when the bounty is plentiful. The canopy also acts as a refuge when they are disturbed, so when they see a carnivore or any such hindrance, they often climb the nearest tree and hide amongst the foliage. Thus, most of our focus was restricted to shining our torches amongst the tree branches. On one of these walks, we got the eye shine that we were waiting for. The animal was hidden amongst the leaves of a Kossam tree ( Schleichera oleosa) so all we could see was an eye shine. As we cautiously stepped closer, we saw something we definitely didn’t expect. The animal suddenly decided to fly to the next tree. What was this we saw!!! Definitely not a Fruit Bat as the eye-shine was too strong. And the animal did have a long tail. We approached the tree where we thought the animal had landed, our heads buzzing with thoughts and questions of the various possibilities. Could it be what we think this is?? In our property??

As we reached the tree we noticed that the animal was on a low perch. The view was much better this time and there was no doubt that we were looking at a Indian Giant Flying Squirrel ( Petaurista philippensis). A Flying Squirrel!! Just a few metres above us!!! We were ecstatic!!!

The grey coat, long dark tail, slender long feet, long claws designed for the perfect grip and the distinct flap of loose skin along its flank, the gliding flaps. Unmistakable!!! The animal stood there watching us for a long time, giving us time for a few clicks before it decided to go further up the tree and glide on. When in flight, we could see that there were two sets of flaps on each side- One that ran between the fore and hind limb, and the second that ran between the hind leg and the tail. This additional flap is the main difference between a flying squirrel and a giant flying squirrel; apart from the obvious size difference.  This flap helps them glide further and sometimes even short distances amongst the middle canopy.

Though widespread in most of peninsular India, these squirrels are now facing multiple dangers, mainly from loss of habitat. The chopping down of tall mature trees makes it hard for them to find a suitable tree hollow to rest for the day. Apart from this the constant planting of introduced tree species like the eucalyptus and the excessive collection of forest fruit for local demand have put increased pressures on them from various angles. They are now restricted to small pockets where healthy habitat remains intact, letting them thrive in peace.

Keeping all these factors in mind, it is absolutely incredible and satisfactory beyond measure that we have been able to find them in our premises. We found a second one in no time next to our water tank adding to our joys. The task now lies in finding the hollow that they use ( it might be harder  than we think). That will ensure that we keep that sight well protected and monitored to better understand these extraordinary creatures of the night.

We went looking for Civets and we got a few Flying Squirrels. Maybe we’ll find a Pangolin next time. We’ll definitely keep you all posted if we do.

Cheers

 The Naturalist Team of Singinawa Jungle Lodge

First Day in the Jungle

October-1st 2016 –

Ours was the first vehicle to enter the Kanha National Park,Madhya Pradesh and , it was a fantastic feeling, especially because it was also the first safari of the Season. We three naturalists were with our guest Ms. Mili Sham, jokingly telling her that taking more than one naturalist along could be a disaster and she just might end up seeing nothing.

Our safari began at six in the morning, the lush green jungle was so refreshing. We were welcomed by large herds of spotted deer, locally known as the Chital. Before we knew it we spotted a small bird trotting in the middle of the jungle – surprisingly it was the Forest wagtail which is a passage migrant. Interestingly this is only species of wagtail found in Central India, which wags its tail sideways, contrary to other wagtails which wag theirs up and down. We were lucky to click a few images of this bird and observed the details through our binoculars. The forest wagtail has a characteristic wing and breast pattern, and a prominent, long, whitish stripe that extends from each eye towards the back of the head.

The morning hours also gave us a chance to see a number of Gaurs, Sambars, Barking deer, Barasingha (also called the Swamp deer) and a variety of other species of birds.

Continuing with our safari, while driving along a small hilly road called the chota chattar pattar, at around 8am we were taken by surprise by a sudden encounter with a male tiger coming out of bushes. By now there were a few other vehicles around and they informed us that this particular male was running away from another dominant male. The Tiger could now be clearly spotted as it was out of the bushes and we began to click a few photographs, while also observing his behaviour through our binoculars. The tiger was regularly marking its territory by spray marking the trees, scrape marking the ground, sniffing the trees, and grazing or rubbing his cheek on the tree bark, usually what all tigers do.

But wait, suddenly to our surprise, the tiger started displaying some unusual and probably never seen before behaviour! This male tiger stood up on its hind legs, started hugging the tree, and licking the tree several times. He would glance around in between, looking for the rival male. Then again he would start hugging the tree and looking around like a curious cat .The Tiger then started walking along the road, sat in a nearby small stream to quench his thirst. We noticed that he soon repeated the same behaviour of hugging and licking the trees for a while. A few minutes later we saw the rival male tiger walking the same path and spray marking the very same trees, probably trying to re-establish his territory. What a treat the morning safari had been for us!!

After getting back to the lodge, and being still intrigued by this behaviour of the tiger, we shot off a few emails with relevant photographs to a few of our friends and experts, wanting to know more about this unique behaviour of the tiger. We were not very successful in getting information on this but got a lot of different opinions. We also spoke to Dr. Raghu Chundawat, a wildlife expert who has studied extensively the tigers of Panna National Park, Central India This is what he had to say and I quote “This may be an individual behaviour of this particular tiger and unless we get more solid data we cannot conclude about this behaviour “ Tigers are one of the most studied mammals, yet as more and more naturalists and biologists step in to work in the field, we keep getting newer and more fascinating details each day reminding us that the natural world is full of wonders and we have barely touched the tip of an iceberg! The safari trail not only left us full of excitement but also left us a little wiser.

There is no doubt that our Safari season had begun with a bang and we couldn’t have asked for more. We had great sightings of birds, mammals, and yes the unique tiger behaviour!

David Raju

Grace from Mother Nature

Game drives at the Kanha National Park always instil the adrenaline to spot one of the big cats. Its in that rush of excitement that we generally tend to overlook the other beautiful gifts of nature.

 This morning, the centre stage was occupied by the Indian wild dogs (Dholes) – the most systematic & barbaric predators of the Indian jungles. As we proceeded with our drive, we came across this pack of dogs, walking towards us, in a world of their own, playing & relishing each other. To my delight, I caught a glimpse of a certain behaviour being displayed by the dogs – scent-marking! This behaviour of urinating on a substrate has a lot of significance in nature like establishing territories, eligibility to breed within the marked territory and displaying dominance over other dogs entering that territory.

 Wild dogs are considered to be the most social carnivores as they often live and hunt in packs. Fascinating fact about these predators is that only one pair breeds at a time to ensure a high success rate of breeding and also so that the other members of the pack can provide maximum help and attention to the young ones. The breeding pair is called the alpha male & alpha female.

 This particular pack seemed to have travelled a long way as they sprawled on the luscious greens for a much needed break. We switched off our engines in an attempt to least disturb this beautiful spectacle of nature.

 The human heart is a greedy one and after about forty minutes of watching the pack, we headed out in search for more. But Mother Nature had different plans for us – sufficing our need rather than our greed!

 Satisfied with the day’s proceedings, we headed back with a renewed hope to feed our greed for more the next day!

 Rajnish Pradhan

Mud Wallowing

We had a show stopper this morning – walking down the road as though it were a ramp, was a stunningly beautiful Sambar Stag.  Just a few feet away from us, it walked toward a waterhole. Normally that would mean it was headed to quench its thirst, but no, wait – we were in for an action-packed morning!

 As we took out our cameras to get some good shots, the stag started displaying distinctive behaviour. Digging the muddy soil with his antlers, he set foot in the wet mud, urinated and suddenly started rolling back and forth on his back.  Covered from head to toe, he spent a good thirty minutes in the slimes of the wet mud.

 The mud acts like a blanket and keeps the urine scent for longer. After this hustle of activity, the stag will leave his scent wherever he goes – in the bushes, thickets & tree trunks.  This allows him to send mating signals to the females around and also mark his territory.

 These wallowing, sparring and scent communications are rituals of behaviours displayed to attract females for courtship. True to its male behaviour, the stag displayed a sense of chauvanism in all aspects – its walk, its sturdy built, and of course its assertive and strong nature – truly a spectacular sight!

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